Threat Intel Update | Cyber Attacks Leveraging the COVID-19/CoronaVirus Pandemic

Update (Wednesday, April 1st)

On April 1st, a new, multifaceted, malware emerged which leverages the Coronavirus in an attempt to target the emotions of their victims.  When executed, the dropper will deposit numerous scripts and dependent files. The threat then proceeds to make a number of configuration changes which negatively affect the security posture of the infected host.  The infection routine requires a reboot due to the changes to UAC. After reboot, additional payloads are executed, resulting in the display of an image of the Coronavirus adorned with additional messages following the theme.


In some scenarios, an additional payload will execute which is responsible for overwriting the machine’s MBR (Master Boot Record). The user is then presented with a simple message on a dull grey background, with their access to local data restricted.

Note: SentinelOne Endpoint detects and prevents all artifacts and behaviors associated with Wiper.coronavirus

Update (Tuesday, March 31st)

Malware authors are continuing to utilize COVID/Coronavirus as a lure.  We have seen ongoing activity from the malware families outlined in this original post, including LokiBot, Tesla Keylogger, and Kpot.  We have also observed additional malware families joining in on the exploitation of fear around COVID-19.

Early March 2020 – Coronavirus-themed email messages are used to spread the Hawkeye trojan.  Hawkeye is a long-standing credential stealing trojan. In recent campaigns users are targeted via spam messages claiming a “cure” in China and Italy (ex: CORONA VIRUS CURE FOR CHINA,ITALY)

Mid-March 2020 – Actors behind the Metamorfo (Casbaneiro) trojan launched a COVID-19-themed spam campaign to spread their malware.  Similar to other uses of this lure, victims are enticed to follow a malicious link to receive “more or updated information” on COVID-19 in their region.  The malicious links lead to a malicious MSI installer which downloads additional malware and establishes persistent C2 communications.

Late March 2020 – Coronavirus-themed email campaign used to spread the Nanocore trojan.  Victims are enticed with misinformation tied to an update on COVID-19 vaccines. Malicious downloads are named following this theme (ex: “Covid-19 Vaccine.gz” )

Late March 2020 – Late in March, we observed the Sphinx banking trojan, which is largely based on leaked source code for Zeus, began to aggressively spread via email with COVID-themed messages.   In some observed cases victims were enticed to complete a form related to receiving government assistance during the outbreak. The malicious document then proceeds to drop and execute a VBS script.  This script establishes C2 communication channels, and downloads additional executable payloads. Beyond the COVID-themed lures, the functionally is largely unchanged with regards to data inception via web injects.


Update (Friday, March 27th)

Covid themed campaigns have started to slow this week, while criminals were quick to capitalize on the news heavy topic of ‘Covid-19’ for their campaigns we suspect this slow down will continue due in part to the current situation where many countries, cities, and provinces have started to order “stay at home” or “shelter in place” orders. These orders could impact local governments and businesses in a way that will slow down a criminal’s ability to move money. We are still following to see what the effect will be on the underground economy as the global economy becomes more turbulent.

This is a concerning time for our industry and the public at large. We are in the midst of a global health crisis. In such times, we all need to be working together and ensuring that everyone has the most accurate and reliable data. We all want assurance that we can trust the resources available to us. Anything counter to that is destructive and potentially harmful to society. However, we all know that cybercriminals and sophisticated adversaries seize opportunities like this to further their own cause. This not only leads to the usual barrage of complications inherent to any cyber attack or event, but in this case it can translate to real harm to those we love and protect.


At Sentinel Labs, we have been closely tracking adversarial behavior as it pertains to COVID-19/Coronavirus. To date, we have observed a significant number of malware campaigns, spam campaigns, and outright scams that are preying on the fears and uncertainties of the global population.

Over the last few months we have seen aggressive use of COVID-19/Coronavirus as a lure all over the spectrum of sophistication. Campaigns range from run-of-the mill scams (selling supplies for BTC via .onion sites) to non-targeted spam campaigns (primarily for credential harvesting). We have even observed enterprising criminals selling COVID-19-specific malware/phishing ‘kits’ which can be customized and leveraged in downline attacks for a very small investment (less than $1000 USD). Nothing is sacred, either: not even the tragic death of NBA star Kobe Bryant, whose image was used to lure fans into downloading malicious desktop backgrounds. 

Indeed a picture (in this case an interactive map) is worth a thousand words, with attackers offering up the ability to load payloads to victims that visit this nefarious coronavirus spread map:

image of fake corona virus incidents map

At the higher end of the range we have seen nation-state actors embrace this opportunity to deploy their implants to high-value targets.

Domain Registration and Squatting

From the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 virus’s spread, opportunistic cyber-criminals have taken to proactively registering relevant domain names for malicious use. According to data from Recorded Future, “Beginning on January 12, the number of domain registrations started to increase, with an additional large spike on February 12”.

While domain registration alone is not proof of ill-intent, it is a reminder that we need to be extra cautious when interacting with “COVID” and “Coronavirus” related domains.

To provide some context, consider the following data:

Registered domains including “coronavirus” in the last 7 days = 5762
Registered domains including “covid” in the last 7 days = 6155
Registered domains including “covid-19” in the last 7 days = 934
Registered domains including “covid19” in the last 7 days = 3098

image of domains registered with covid in the name
Src: DN Pedia

In the more scam-centric realm, registered domains including “coronacure” in the last 7 days = 934.

image of Registered domains including "coronacure" in the last 7 days
Src: DN Pedia

Some of these domains claim to offer medical supplies at exorbitant prices; would-be buyers pay up-front and take their chances as to whether they will ever see a delivery.

image of scam advert for a Covid Test

It is important to note that these numbers do not account for typo-squatting or subtly-varied names (homographic attacks), or numerical-replacement variants (aka ‘hackerese).

Malware, Phishing & Scams

A specific rundown of recent campaigns and events is as follows:

January 2020

In late January 2020, we observed Coronavirus-themed Emotet spam campaigns, primarily targeting Japanese entities. Message templates for the spam runs were updated frequently (as is normal with Emotet). That being said, most messages masquerade as “urgent notifications which urge the victims to open malicious email attachments. The malicious attachments are disguised as updated information briefings on COVID-19 patients in their particular region.

image of covid scam

February 2020

In early February 2020, multiple COVID-19/Coronavirus-themed phishing campaigns were tracked, targeting primarily the shipping and logistics industry. The phishing campaigns were used to spread the AZORult trojan to high-value targets in the shipping sector. Some message samples contained malicious Microsoft Office documents designed to exploit CVE-2017-11882. CVE-2017-11882 is a memory corruption vulnerability in Equation Editor. Successful exploitation allows for the execution of arbitrary code across affected versions of Microsoft Office.

In early February 2020, a massive COVID-19/Coronavirus-themed phishing campaign targeted large swaths of Office 365 users. The motive behind these campaigns was basic credential harvesting. Victims were urged to open malicious attachments which were disguised as updates on COVID-19 patterns in their local areas. Most observed samples masquerading as updates from the “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention”. Attackers took advantage of ‘look-a-like’ domains for added authenticity (ex: cdc-gov[.]org)

In early February 2020, we tracked COVID-19/Coronavirus-themed spam campaigns spreading LokiBot, specifically targeting Chinese entities. Spam messages were seen masquerading as updates from the ‘Ministry of Health in the People’s Republic of China’. Messages were written in English but appear to have been written by a non-native English speaker. The LokiBot malware was distributed in these messages in the form of RAR archives (with .arj extensions).

In mid-February 2020, multiple malicious websites were constructed to deliver the Grandoreio banking trojan. Multiple weaponized sites were utilized, primarily targeting users in Mexico, Spain, and Brazil. The sites utilized a ‘video player’ download-style lure to entice victims into executing the Grandoreio payloads.

In mid-February, the “Corona Virus Map Phishing Kit” was advertised for sale in various underground forums. The kit ranged in price from $200 USD to $700 USD. Buyers are able to customize the kit to embed their own payloads or force a redirection (upon execution of the trojanized map EXE) to remote payloads. The malicious map executable masquerades as legitimate map data from Johns Hopkins University. 

In late February 2020, we observed COVID-19/Coronavirus-themed spam campaigns targeting users in the Ukraine. Spam messages are disguised as updates from the ‘Center for Public Health of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine’. The messages claim to contain updated information for the public pertaining to COVID-19/Coronavirus. Initial waves of the campaign were used to distribute various dropper and downloader trojans.

In late February 2020, COVID-19/Coronavirus-themed spam emails were used to distribute the Tesla Keylogger. Spam messages were constructed via a customized phishing kit. Observed samples are disguised as updates from ‘The Centers for Disease Control’. Victims are enticed into following malicious links in order to access informational “updates for their area”.

In late February 2020, we observed a spam campaign targeting South Korean entities. The spam campaigns were used to distribute BabyShark implants, often associated with the cyber operations of North Korea. Malicious attachments were disguised as official updates on South Korea’s response to COVID-19.

In late February 2020, multiple spam campaigns were observed distributing the FormBook. malware. Messages were disguised as updates from FedEx on their current plans for dealing with issues and delays around COVID-19.

In late February 2020, Trickbot campaigns were tracked, primarily targeting Italian entities. Spam messages were constructed with a customized phishing kit, and redirected victims to Trickbot payloads.

March 2020

In early March 2020, the APT group Mustang Panda (China) utilized multiple spam campaigns to deliver implants. Spam messages made use of multiple COVID-19-themed lures. Malicious documents were used to execute additional scripts, and leverage subsequent LOTL tactics to retrieve and launch payloads.

In mid-March 2020, we observed multiple websites hosting fake versions of WiseCleaner utilities. These sites were used to distribute the Kpot Infostealer trojan, along with a new ransomware family dubbed “CoronaVirus”. From the fake WiseCleaner-themed sites, a malicious version of “WSHSetup.exe” was used to download both the CoronaVirus ransomware along with Kpot Infostealer. Once-infected, a customized ransom message is displayed at boot, prior to the loading of Windows. Victims are instructed to email attackers, as opposed to interacting with them via a payment portal site. 

image of ransomware ransom note related to coronavirus

The Kpot Infostealer trojan is coupled with the ransomware in order to harvest cryptocurrency wallets, browser data and credential sets. The requested ransom is typically ~$50.00 USD.

In mid-March 2020, a new family of Android ransomware, CovidLock, began targeting users via malicious app (APK) downloads. The malicious apps were hosted on sites masquerading as hosts for valid real-time information tracking apps. Upon infection, the ransomware tricks users into providing full device control via misleading permissions request dialogs. The malware sets itself to load upon device startup and leads to a lock-screen style ransom request. This specific family utilizes Pastebin to aid in the construction of the displayed ransom notes.

Emergence of Blatant Scams

Multiple dark web (.onion) sites claim to sell COVID-19/Coronavirus supplies (masks, sanitization and cleaning supplies) directly for BTC (bitcoin). These are outright scams, which just collect BTC and deliver nothing to their victims. To add insult to injury, we have also seen sites reporting to sell non-existent vaccines, charging $5000.

image of scamvert selling medical masks

Scammy COVID-19 supply sellers

image of another scam related to medical supply sales

image of scamvert selling fake coronavirus tests

Infrastructure & Misinformation Attacks

On Monday, March 16 an attempted DDoS attack was carried out against the US Health and Human Services Department. While the HHS infrastructure remained “fully operational” there was a perceived strain on the targeted systems given the increased activity. The attack comes at a critical time given the current influx of requests to their site (and services) seeking information and updates around protection against COVID-19. In this situation, the HHS was prepared. According to an HHS spokesman, “while preparing and responding to COVID-19, HHS put extra protections in place”. 

image of tweet about DDoS attack on health service provider

In addition to the DDoS attempt on HHS, we have seen a flurry of social media campaigns specifically crafted to spread misinformation, and increase paranoia around the Coronavirus pandemic. There appear to be multiple, ongoing misinformation campaigns across all social media platforms (ex: Twitter, Facebook, Telegram). 

image of fake health alert about Covid-19
For this reason, we all need to be extra careful and ultra-discerning. The NSC has been quick to alert on and clarify most of these attempts, but again they are ongoing. It is recommended that the public continually monitor the NSC (and other official outlets) for accurate data and updates, as well as alerts on misinformation campaigns.

image of tweet from NSC

Supply & Lockdown Effects on the Criminal Element

Cyber criminals can be affected by the societal impacts of COVID-19 as well. Perhaps as a ‘positive’ side-effect, some underground vendors are having to cease operations due to increased risk or limited supplies.

image of message from online drug dealers about problems due to Covid-19

image of Dutch drug sellers claiming problems about supply and distribution because of covid 19


The psychology of fear, uncertainty, and doubt is a powerful weapon. Criminals have become more advanced in their understanding of manipulating human emotion to achieve a targeted action. Social engineering is based on the premise that I can get a victim to take action the victim believes to be trusted, but which is actually malicious, using manipulation, influence, and deceit. It can also be based on downright intimidation, authority, and extortion. The net result is a victim taking actions they otherwise never would have in the absence of social engineering.

Nation-state actors have long relied upon social engineering to achieve targeted goals for espionage, system compromise, election influence, and social media manipulation.

While this is still very much a ‘living’ situation, Sentinel Labs has already observed the ability for enterprising cybercriminals to capitalize on the fear and uncertainty of the general public. As is the case with any large and newsworthy event, our adversaries have no scruples when it comes to social engineering and malware distribution. Nothing is out of bounds, and the main difference with the current climate is that the stakes are much higher. It is enough of a challenge to get accurate data and information from known-and-reputable sources. The criminal element further muddies the water and makes our attempts to protect our loved ones (and selves) that much more of a challenge.


Sentinel Labs will be posting updates and details as they become available at

This post draws out critical lessons we can learn from both cyber and biological threats:

The Line Between Biological & Cyber Threats Has Never Been So Thin | What Can We Learn & What Should We Do?

In addition, the US-CERT/CISA has posted a list of additional resources which can assist in avoiding COVID-19-related scams and attacks. They cover cyber-hygiene recommendations and link additional helpful resources as well:

US-CERT: Defending Against COVID-19 Cyber Scams
CISA Insights: Risk Management for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Note: PDF)

Indicators of Compromise

Zeus Sphinx

Zeus Sphinx

Zeus Sphinx

Zeus Sphinx

Zeus Sphinx

Zeus Sphinx
























Generic Downloader/Dropper 
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